Hijrah Muhammad

Awal Muharram menjelma lagi. Muharram, merupakan bulan yang ditandakan dengan penghijrahan Nabi Muhammad s.a.w yang diambil menjadi penanda bermulanya kalendar Islam, kalendar Hijriyah. Detik 1 Muharram jarang terlepas dari persekitaran kita. Lagu nasyid 1 Muharram terngiang-ngiang di telinga.

“1 Muharram detik permulaan, perkiraan tahun Islam Hijrah, perpindahan Nabi dan umat Islam, dari kota Makkah ke kota Madinah!”

Bersempena dengan kedatangan Muharram kali ini, suka saya bawakan kisah hijrah Muhammad s.a.w tersebut. Kisah ini sering kita dengar sejak dari kecil lagi. Bermacam-macam rencah cerita diperkenalkan. Saya teringat, ketika di zaman kanak-kanak dahulu sering menelaah buku sirah Muhammad yang disertakan dengan lukisan dan ilustrasi yang menarik. Begitu juga, saya yakin tak kurang antara kita yang menonton filem Muhammad : Utusan Terakhir, turun mendapat gambaran yang menarik mengenai hijrah Muhammad tersebut.

Namun suka saya bawakan di sini, versi yang dipetik daripada kitab sirah terkenal, Ar-Raheeq al-Makhtoum (The Sealed Nectar) yang dikarang oleh ulama Syeikh Saifurrahman Al-Mubarakpuri.

Ar-Raheeq al-Makhtoum

Apa yang menariknya kitab sirah ini? Dalam pengajian Islam mengkhusus dalam bidang sirah, terdapat banyak kitab terkenal yang kita boleh jadikan rujukan. Contohnya seperti kitab Sirah Ibnu Ishaq, Sirah Ibnu Hisham dan lain-lain.

Namun yang paling saya gemari, adalah kitab sirah kontemporari oleh Syeikh Saifurrahman Al-Mubarakpuri ini. Kenapa kitab ini menjadi pilihan? Kerana ciri paling utamanya adalah – kitab ini menghimpunkan kisah-kisah dan sirah Nabi Muhammad s.a.w berdasarkan sumber yang paling sahih.

Pada tahun 1976, berlangsungnya sebuah Muktamar Sirah al-Nabawiyyah di Pakistan. Muktamar yang dihadiri oleh para ulama’ dari seluruh dunia tersebut, berakhir dengan satu resolusi – agar diadakan satu cabaran pertandingan yang dikenali sebagai Sayembara Penulisan Sirah Nabawiyyah. Pertandingan tersebut adalah bagi mencari, siapakah dalam kalangan para ulama’ masa itu yang dapat menghasilkan sebuah kitab sirah yang terbaik di zaman ini.

Alhamdulillah, Allah mengurniakan keupayaan dan kesungguhan kepada Syeikh Saifurrahman Al-Mubarakpuri untuk menjadi johan dengan kitabnya “Ar-Raheeq al-Makhtoum” (The Sealed Nectar), mengalahkan 171 calon lain dari seluruh pelusuk dunia. Kitab tersebut terpilih kerana ianya berlandaskan fakta sebenar yang diadaptasikan melalui hadis-hadis Sahih yang diriwayatkan oleh para muhaddisin serta buku-buku sejarah yang dikira tepat dari nukilan faktanya.

Kerana itu, saya yang tidak berkemampuan meneliti kitab-kitab sirah lain seterusnya meneliti kesahihan kisah-kisah didalamnya, saya cukup gemarkan Ar-Raheeq al-Makhtoum. Setidak-tidaknya, inilah kisah sirah Rasulullah yang paling suci, bebas daripada tokok tambah dan unsur-unsur yang diragukan.

Untuk mengenali lebih lanjut mengenai Syeikh Saifurrahman Al-Mubarakpuri serta kitab Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtoum, boleh rujuk di sini: Reviu Kitab Sirah Raheeq Al-Makhtum.

Hijrah Muhammad

Justeru itu, mari saya bawakan di sini, petikan dari kitab tersebut. Pada asalnya saya bercadang untuk menterjemahkannya kedalam Bahasa Melayu, namun kerana kelemahan berbahasa saya, saya merasakan saya tidak mampu melakukannya. Kisah yang akan saya petik bermula dari bab “The Vanguard of Migration” hinggalah ke bab “Life in Madinah”, merangkumi empat bab. Maka entri ini akan panjang sedikit, ya?

Bahagian yang dikomen secara peribadi oleh saya, ditandakan dengan warna merah. =)

The Vanguard of Migration

After the endorsement of the Second ‘Aqabah Pledge and the establishment of a petite Muslim state in a vast desert surging with disbelief and ignorance — the most serious gain in terms of Islam —, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) gave his leave for the Muslims to migrate to Madinah, the nascent Muslim state.

Migration to Madinah, in terms of personal interests, was no more than material waste and sacrifice of wealth, all in return for personal safety only. Even here, the migrant could not expect full security; he was liable to be robbed or even killed either at the beginning or end of his departure. The future was foggy, pregnant with various unpredictable sorts of sorrows and crises.

Bearing all this in mind, the Muslims began to migrate, while the polytheists spared no effort in hindering and debarring them, knowing beforehand that such a move implied unimaginable threats and unthinkable destructive dangers to their whole society:

The first one to migrate was Abu Salamah, a year before the Great ‘Aqabah Pledge. When he had made up his mind to leave Makkah, his in-laws, in a desperate attempt to raise obstacles, detained his wife and snatched his son and dislocated his hand. Umm Salamah, after the departure of her husband and the loss of her son spent a year by herself weeping and lamenting. A relative of hers eventually had pity on her and exhorted the others to release her son and let her join her husband. She then set out on a journey of 500 kilometres with no help whatsoever. At a spot called At-Tan‘im, ‘Uthman bin Talhah came across her and offered to give her a ride to Madinah. She, along with her son, joined Abu Salamah in the village of Quba’, a suburb of Madinah.

(Subhanallah, sungguh menakjubkan kisah keluarga Abu Salamah. Beratnya dugaan yang dihadapi kerana ingin berhijrah. Namun sungguh sejati cinta Abu Salamah dan Ummu Salamah, meskipun terpisah namun akhirnya bertemu semula di Quba.)

Another instance of the atrocities of the polytheist Makkans, as regards migration, is Suhaib. This man expressed his wish to migrate and of course this was a source of indignation to the disbelievers. They began to insult him claiming that he had come into Makkah as a worthless tramp, but their town was gracious enough and thanks to them he managed to make a lot of money and become wealthy. They gave orders that he would not leave. Seeing this, he offered to give away all his wealth to them. They eventually agreed to release him on that condition. The Prophet heard this story and commented on it saying:

“Suhaib is the winner, after all.”

(Begitu juga dengan kisah Suhaib, sanggup menyerahkan segala hartanya demi keinginannya untuk berhijrah. Subhanallah! )

Then, there was the story of ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab, ‘Ayyash bin Abi Rabi‘a and Hisham bin Al-‘Asi, who agreed to meet at a certain place one morning in order to leave for Madinah; ‘Umar and ‘Ayyash came but Hisham was detained by the Makkans.

Shortly afterwards Abu Jahl, and his brother Al-Harith came to Madinah to see their third brother ‘Ayyash. They cunningly tried to touch the most sensitive area in man, i.e. his relation with his mother. They addressed him claiming that his mother had sworn she would never comb her hair, nor shade herself off the sun unless she had seen him. ‘Ayyash took pity on his mother, but ‘Umar was intelligent enough to understand that they wanted to entice ‘Ayyash away from Islam so he cautioned him against their tricks, and added “your mother would comb her hair if lice pestered her, and would shade herself off if the sun of Makkah got too hot for her.” These words notwithstanding, ‘Ayyash was determined to go and see his mother, so ‘Umar gave him his manageable docile camel advising him to stick to its back because it would provide rescue for him if he perceived anything suspicious on their part. The party of three then set forth towards Makkah. As soon as they covered part of the distance, Abu Jahl complained about his camel and requested ‘Ayyash to allow him to ride behind him on his camel. When they knelt down to the level of the ground, the two polytheists fell upon ‘Ayyash and tied him. They rode on into Makkah shouting at people to follow their example with respect to ‘fools’

(Juga dapat dilihat, betapa kejinya musyrikin Makkah dalam usaha mengganggu umat Islam berhijrah.)

These are just three self-explanatory models of the Makkans’ reaction towards anyone intending to migrate. Nevertheless, the believers still managed to escape in successive groups and so rapidly that within two months of the Second ‘Aqabah Pledge, entire quarters of Makkah were deserted. Almost all the followers of Muhammad had migrated to their new abode, except Abu Bakr, ‘Ali, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) himself, and those helpless noble souls who had been detained in confinement or were unable to escape. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) , together with Abu Bakr and ‘Ali, had made all the necessary preparations for migration but was waiting for leave from his Lord. It is noteworthy that most of the Muslim who had migrated to Abyssinia (Ethiopia), came back to Madinah to join the rest of the Muslims there.

The situation was no doubt critical in Makkah but Muhammad (Peace be upon him) was not at all perturbed. Abu Bakr was, however, urging the Prophet to depart from that town. He was also eagerly waiting for an opportunity to accompany Muhammad (Peace be upon him) on this eventful journey. But the Prophet told him that the time had not yet come; the Lord had not given him the command to migrate. In anticipation of the Command of Allâh, Abu Bakr had made preparations for the journey. He had purchased two swift camels and had fed them properly for four months so that they could successively stand the ordeals of the long desert journey.

IN AN-NADWAH (COUNCIL) HOUSE THE PARLIAMENT OF QURAISH

The polytheists were paralysed by the carefully planned and speedy movement of Muhammad’s followers towards their new abode in Madinah. They were caught in unprecedented anxiety and got deeply worried over their whole pagan and economic entity. They already experienced Muhammad (Peace be upon him) as an influential leader; and his followers as determined, decent and always ready to sacrifice all they had for the sake of the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him).

Al-Aws and Al-Khazraj tribes, the would-be-hosts of the Makkan Muslims, were also known in Arabia for their might and power in war, and judicious and sensible approach in peace. They were also averse to rancour and prejudice for they themselves had had bitter days of inter-tribal warfare. Madinah , itself, the prospective headquarters of the ever-growing Islamic Call, enjoyed the most serious strategic position. It commanded the commercial routes leading to Makkah whose people used to deal in about a quarter of a million gold dinar-worth commodities every year. Security of the caravan routes was crucial for the perpetuity of prosperous economic life.

All those factors borne in mind, the polytheists felt they were in the grip of a serious threat. They, therefore, began to seek the most effective method that could avert this imminent danger. They convened a meeting on Thursday, 26th Safar, the year fourteen of Prophethood / 12th September 622 A.D., i.e. two and a half months after the Great ‘Aqabah Pledge. On that day, “the Parliament of Makkah” held the most serious meeting ever, with one item on the agenda: How to take effective measures with a view to stopping that tidal wave. Delegates representing all the Quraishite tribes attended the meeting, the most significant of whom were:

1. Abu Jahl bin Hisham, from Bani Makhzum;
2. Jubair bin Mut‘im, Tuaima bin ‘Adi, and Al-Harith bin ‘Amir representing Bani Naufal bin ‘Abd Munaf;
3. Rabi‘a’s two sons Shaibah and ‘Utbah besides Abu Sufyan bin Harb from Bani ‘Abd Shams
bin ‘Abd Munaf;
4. An-Nadr bin Al-Harith (who had besmeared the Prophet (Peace be upon him) with animal
entrails) to speak for Bani ‘Abd Ad-Dar;
5. Abul Bukhtary bin Hisham, Zama‘a bin Al-Aswad and Hakeem bin Hizam to represent Bani
Asad bin ‘Abd Al-‘Uzza;
6. Al-Hajjaj’s two sons Nabih and Munbih from Bani Sahm;
7. Omaiyah bin Khalaf from Bani Jumah.

On their way to An-Nadwah House, Iblis (Satan) in the guise of a venerable elderly man standingat the door interrupted their talk and introduced himself as a man from Najd curious enough to attend the meeting, listen to the debate and wish them success to reach a sound opinion. He was readily admitted in.

There was a lengthy debate and several proposals were put forward. Expulsion from Makkah was proposed and debated in turn but finally turned down on grounds that his sweet and heart-touching words could entice the other Arabs to attack them in their own city. Imprisonment for life was also debated but also refused for fear that his followers might increase in number, overpower them and release him by force.

At this point, the arch-criminal of Makkah, Abu Jahl bin Hisham suggested that they assassinate him (Muhammad s.a.w). But assassination by one man would have exposed him and his family to the vengeance of blood. The difficulty was at last solved by Abu Jahl himself, who suggested that a band of young men, one from each tribe, should strike Muhammad simultaneously with their swords so that the blood-money would be spread over them all and therefore could not be exacted, and his people would seek a mind-based recourse for settlement. The sinful proposal was unanimously accepted, and the representatives broke up the meeting and went back home with full determination for immediate implementation.

(Pelan pembunuhan Muhammad s.a.w dirangka. Mastermind – Abu Jahal.)

MIGRATION OF THE PROPHET (Peace be upon him)

When the iniquitous decision had been made, Gabriel was sent down to Muhammad (Peace be upon him) to reveal to him Quraish’s plot and give him his Lord’s Permission to leave Makkah. He fixed to him the time of migration and asked him not to sleep that night in his usual bed. At noon, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) went to see his Companion Abu Bakr and arranged with him everything for the intended migration. Abu Bakr was surprised to see the Prophet (Peace be upon him) masked coming to visit him at that unusual time, but he soon learned that Allâh’s Command had arrived, and he proposed that they should migrate together, to which the Prophet (Peace be upon him) gave his consent.

To make the necessary preparations for the implementation of their devilish plan, the chiefs of Makkah had chosen eleven men: Abu Jahl, Hakam bin Abil Al-‘As, ‘Uqbah bin Abi Mu‘ait, An-Nadr bin Harith, Omaiyah bin Khalaf, Zama‘a bin Al-Aswad, Tu‘aima bin ‘Adi, Abu Lahab, Ubai bin Khalaf, Nabih bin Al-Hajjaj and his brother Munbih bin Al-Hajjaj. All were on the alert. As night advanced, they posted assassins around the Prophet’s house. Thus they kept vigil all night long, waiting to kill him the moment he left his house early in the morning, peeping now and then through a hole in the door to make sure that he was still lying in his bed.

Abu Jahl, the great enemy of Islam, used to walk about haughtily and arrogantly jeering at Muhammad’s words, saying to the people around him: “Muhammad claims that if you follow him, he will appoint you rulers over the Arabs and non- Arabs and in the Hereafter your reward will be Gardens similar to those in Jordan, otherwise, he will slaughter you and after death you will be burnt in fire.” He was too confident of the success of his devilish plan.

Allâh, the All-Mighty, however, in Whose Hands lie the sovereignty of the heavens and earth, does what He desires; He renders succour and can never be overpowered. He did exactly what He later said to His Prophet:

“And (remember) when the disbelievers plotted against you [O Muhammad (Peace be upon him)] to imprison you, or to kill you, or to get you out (from your home, i.e. Makkah); they were plotting and Allâh too was planning, andAllâh is the Best of the planners.” [8:30]

At that critical time the plans of Quraish utterly failed despite the tight siege they laid to the Prophet’s house, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) and ‘Ali were inside the house. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) told ‘Ali to sleep in his bed and cover himself with his green mantle and assured him full security under Allâh’s protection and told him that no harm would come to him. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) then came out of the room and cast a handful of dust at the assassins and managed to work his way through them reciting verses of the Noble Qur’ân:

“And We have put a barrier before them, and a barrier behind them, and We have covered them up, so that they cannot see.” [36:9]

(Selalu kita baca ayat ini dalam surah Yasin, sekarang kita tahu bahawa Rasulullah menggunakan ayat ini bagi memukau mata para pembunuh upahan kaum musyrikin tersebut!)

He proceeded direct to the house of Abu Bakr who, immediately accompanied him and both set out southwards, clambered up the lofty peak of Mountain Thawr, and decided to take refuge in a cave.

The assassins who laid siege to the house were waiting for the zero hour when someone cameand informed them that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) had already left. They rushed in and to their utter surprise, found that the person lying in the Prophet’s bed was ‘Ali not Muhammad (Peace be upon him). This created a stir in the whole town.

The Prophet (Peace be upon him) had thus left his house on Safar 27th, the fourteenth year of Prophethood, i.e. 12/13 September 622 A.D.

Knowing already that Quraish would mobilize all its potentials to find him, he played a clever trick on them and instead of taking the road to Madinah in north side of Makkah as the polythiest would expect, he (Muhammad) walked along a road least expected lying south of Makkah and leading to Yemen. He walked for 5 miles until he reached a rough rocky mountain called Thawr. There his shoes were worn out, some said he used to walk tiptoe in order not to leave a trail behind him. Abu Bakr (May Allah be pleased with him) carried him up the mountain to a cave called after the name of the mountain, Cave Thawr.

Abu Bakr first entered to explore the cave and be sure that it was safe, closed all holes with pieces torn off from his clothes, cleaned it and then asked the Prophet (Peace be upon him) to step in. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) went in and immediately laid his head in Abu Bakr’s lap and fell asleep.

Suddenly Abu Bakr’s foot was stung by a poisonous insect. It hurt so much that his tears fell on the Prophet’s face. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) immediately applied his saliva on Abu Bakr’s foot and the pain went off on the spot.

They confined themselves to this cave for three nights, Friday, Saturday and Sunday. ‘Abdullah, the son of Abu Bakr would go to see them after dusk, stay the night there, apprise them of the latest situation in Makkah, and then leave in the early morning to mix with the Makkans as usual and not to draw the least attention to his clandestine activities. ‘Amir bin Fuhairah, while in the company of other shepherds of Makkah tending his master Abu Bakr’s flock, used to stole away unobserved every evening with a few goats to the cave and furnished its inmates with a plentiful supply of milk.

Quraish, on the other hand, were quite baffled and exasperated when the news of the escape of the two companions was confirmed. They brought ‘Ali to Al-Ka‘bah, beat him brutally and confined him there for an hour attempting desperately to make him divulge the secret of the disappearance of the two ‘fugitives’, but to no avail. They then went to see Asma’, Abu Bakr’s daughter, but here also their attempts went in vain. While at her door Abu Jahl slapped the girl (Asma’) so severely that her earring broke up.

The notables of Makkah convened an emergency session to determine the future course of action and explore all areas that could help arrest the two men. They decided to block all avenues leading out of Makkah and imposed heavy armed surveillance over all potential exits. A price of 100 camels was set upon the head of each one. Horsemen, infantry and tracers of tracks scoured the country. Once they even reached the mouth of the cave where the Prophet (Peace be upon him) and Abu Bakr were hiding. When he saw the enemy at a very close distance, Abu Bakr whispered to the Prophet (Peace be upon him): “What, if they were to look through the crevice and detect us?” The Prophet (Peace be upon him) in his God-inspired calm replied:

“Silence Abu Bakr! What do you think of those two with whom the Third is Allâh.” It was really a Divine miracle, the chasers were only a few steps from the cave.

(Oh, baru saya tahu, bahawa kisah burung merpati, sarang labah-labah dan cicak itu bukanlah kisah yang benar-benar sahih rupanya!)

For three days Muhammad (Peace be upon him) and Abu Bakr lived in the cave and Quraish continued their frantic efforts to get hold of them. Someone called ‘Abdullah bin Uraiquit, who had as yet not embraced Islam, but was trusted by Abu Bakr, and had been hired by him as a guide, reached the cave after three nights according to a plan bringing with him Abu Bakr’s two camels. His report satisfied the noble ‘fugitives’ that the search had slackened. The opportunity to depart was come. Here Abu Bakr offered the Prophet (Peace be upon him) the swift animal to ride on. The latter agreed provided that he would pay its price. They took with them the food provisions that Asma’, daughter of Abu Bakr, brought and tied in a bundle of her waistband, after tearing it into two parts, hence the appellation attached to her: “Asma’of the two waistbands.

(Tahukah anda, gelaran kepada Asma’ binti Abu Bakar adalah “Dzat al-Nitsaqayn”? Inilah asal usul kepada gelaran tersebut.)

The Prophet (Peace be upon him), Abu Bakr and ‘Amir bin Fuhairah departed, and their guide ‘Abdullah bin Uraiquit led them on hardly ever trodden ways along the coastal route. That was in Rabi‘ Al-Awwal, 1st year A.H., i.e. September 622 A.D. The little caravan travelled through many villages on their way to Quba’. In this context, it is relevant to introduce some interesting incidents that featured their wearying journey:

(Kisah-Kisah Hijrah Abu Bakar bersama Rasulullah)

Kisah Abu Bakar Menyembunyikan Identiti Rasulullah

One day they could find no shelter from the scorching heat so Abu Bakr (May Allah be pleased with him) cast a glance and found a little shade beside a rock. He cleaned the ground, spread his mantle for the Prophet(Peace be upon him) to lie on and himself went off in search of food. He came across a shepherd, a bedouin boy, who was also seeking a shelter. Abu Bakr asked him for some milk and took it to the Prophet (Peace be upon him), cooled it with some water and waited till the Prophet (Peace be upon him) woke up and quenched his thirst.

Whoever asked Abu Bakr (May Allah be pleased with him) about the identity of his honourable companion, he would reply that he was a man who guided him on his way. The questioner would think that Muhammad (Peace be upon him) was a guide, in terms of roads, whereas Abu Bakr used to mean guide to the way of righteousness.

Kisah Suraqah Mengejar Merebut Dinar

Quraish, as we have already mentioned, had declared that whoever would seize Muhammad (Peace be upon him) would receive a hundred camels as reward. This had spurred many persons to try their luck. Among those who were on the lookout for the Prophet (Peace be upon him) and his companion in order to win the reward was Suraqah, the son of Malik. He, on receiving information that a party of four, had been spotted on a certain route, decided to pursue it secretly so that he alone should be the winner of the reward. He mounted a swift horse and went in hot pursuit of them.

On the way the horse stumbled and he fell on the ground. On drawing a lot so as to divine whether he should continue the chase or not, as the Arabs used to do in such circumstances, he found the omens unpropitious. But the lust for material wealth blinded him altogether and he resumed the chase. Once more he met with the same fate but paid no heed to it. Again he jumped onto the saddle and galloped at a break-neck speed till he came quite close to the Prophet (Peace be upon him). Abu Bakr’s heart agitated and he kept looking back while the Prophet (Peace be upon him) remained steadfast and continued reciting verses of the Qur’ân.

The repeated stumbling of Suraqah’s horse and his falling off awakened him to the situation, and he realized that it was a constant warning of Allâh for his evil design which he contemplated against the Prophet (Peace be upon him). He approached the travelling group with a penitent heart and begged of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) forgiveness in all humility. He addressed the Prophet (Peace be upon him) and his companion, saying: “Your people (the Quraishites) have promised a generous reward to anyone who captures you.” He added that he offered them provision but they declined his offer. They only asked him to screen off their departure and blind the polytheists to their hiding place. Then the Prophet (Peace be upon him) forgave him and confirmed it with a token written by ‘Amir bin Fuhairah on a piece of parchment. Suraqah hurried back to Makkah and tried to foil the attempts of those who were in pursuit of Muhammad (Peace be upon him) and his noble companions. The sworn enemy was converted into an honest believer.

(Suraqah mengejar, demi merebut dinar yang dijanjikan. Allah melindungi perjalanan kekasihNya yang tercinta!)

In a version by Abu Bakr (May Allah be pleased with him), he said: “We emigrated while the Makkans were in pursuit of us. None caught up with us except Suraqah bin Malik bin Ju‘sham on a horse. I said: ‘O Messenger of Allâh, this one has caught up with us.’ The Prophet (Peace be upon him) replied:

‘Don’t be cast down, verily, Allâh is with us.’”

Kisah Rasulullah dan Kambing Ummu Ma’bad

The party continued its journey until it reached to solitary tents belonging to a woman called Umm Ma‘bad Al-Khuza‘iyah. She was a gracious lady who sat at her tent-door with a mat spread out for any chance traveller that might pass by the way.

Fatigued and thirsty, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) and his companions wanted to refresh themselves with food and some milk. The lady told them that the flock was out in the pasture and the goat standing nearby was almost dry. It was a rainless year. The Prophet (Peace be upon him), with her permission, touched its udders, reciting over them the Name of Allâh, and to their great joy, there flowed plenty of milk out of them. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) first offered that to the lady of the house, and he shared what was left with the members of the party. Before he left, he milked the goat, filled the container and gave it to Umm Ma‘bad. Later on, her husband arrived with slender goats hardly having any milk in their udders. He was astonished to see milk in the house. His wife told him that a blessed man passed by the way, and then she gavedetails about his physical appearance and manner of talk.

Here Abu Ma‘bad realized on the spot that the man was the one whom Quraish were searching for and asked her to give full description of him. She gave a wonderful account of his physique and manners, to which we will go in detail later in the process of talking about his attributes and merits.

AbuMa‘bad, after listening to his wife’s account, expressed a sincere wish to accompany the Prophet (Peace be upon him) whenever that was possible, and reiterated his admiration in verses of poetry that echoed all over Makkah to such an extent that the people therein thought it was a jinn inculcating words in their ears.

Asma’, daughter of Abu Bakr, on hearing those lines, got to know that the two companions were heading for Madinah . The short poem opened with thanks giving to Allâh having given them (the Ma‘bads) the chance to host the Prophet (Peace be upon him) for a while. It then gave an account of the bliss that would settle in the heart of the Prophet’s companion whosoever he was; it closed with an invitation to all mankind to come and see by themselves Umm Ma‘bad, her goat and the container of milk that would all testify to the truthfulness of the Prophet (Peace be upon him).

Abu Buraidah Memeluk Islam

On his way to Madinah , the Prophet (Peace be upon him) met Abu Buraidah, one of those driven by their lust for the reward of Quraish. No sooner did he face the Prophet (Peace be upon him) and talk with him, than he embraced Islam along with seventy of his men. He took off his turban, tied it round his lance and took it as a banner bearing witness that the angel of security and peace had come to imbue the whole world with justice and fairness.

Az-Zubair Menghadiahkan Pakaian

The two Emigrants resumed their journey. It was during this time that they met Az-Zubair at the head of a caravan returning from Syria. There was warm greeting and Az-Zubair presented to them two white garments which they thankfully accepted.

On Monday, 8th Rabi‘ Al-Awwal, the fourteenth year of Prophethood, i.e. September 23rd. 622, the Messenger of Allâh arrived at Quba’.

As soon as the news of Muhammad’s arrival began to spread, crowds came flocking out of Madinah . They would come every morning and wait eagerly for his appearance until forced by the unbearable heat of the midday sun to return. One day they had gone as usual, and after a long wait and watch they retired to the city when a Jew, catching a glimpse of three travellers clad in white winding their way to Madinah , shouted from the top of a hillock: “O you people of Arabia! Your grandfather has come! He, whom you have been eagerly waiting for, has come!” The Muslims immediately rushed holding their weapons, (to defend him). The joyful news soon spread through the city and people marched forward to greet their noble guest.

Ibn Al-Qayyim said: “The shouts of ‘Allâhu Akbar’ (Allâh is Great) resounded in Banu ‘Amr bin ‘Auf. Muhammad’s (Peace be upon him) elation correspondingly increased, but with rare sense of timing and propriety, called a halt. Serenity enveloped him and theñ revelation was sent down:

“… then verily, Allâh is his Maula (Lord, Master or Protector), and Gabriel, and the righteous among the believers, – and furthermore, the angels – are his helpers.” [66:4]

‘Urwah bin Az-Zubair said: They received the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him), and went with them to the right. There Banu ‘Amr bin ‘Awf hosted him. That was on Monday, Rabi‘ Al-Awwal. He sat down silent, and Al-Ansar (the Helpers), who had not had the opportunity to see him before, came in to greet him: It is said that the sun became too hot so Abu Bakr stood up to shade him from the hot sun rays. It was really an unprecedented day in Madinah . The Jews could perceive concretely the veracity of their Prophet Habquq, who said: ‘God has come from At-Taiman, and the Qudus one from Faran Mount.’

Muhammad (Peace be upon him) stayed in Quba’ with Kulthum bin Al-Hadm, a hospitable chief of the tribe of ‘Amr bin ‘Awf. Here he spent four days: Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday . It was during this period that the foundation of Quba’ Mosque was laid on the basis of pure piety. ‘Ali hung back in Makkah for three days to return the trusts, on behalf of the Prophet (Peace be upon him), to their respective owners. After that he started his emigration journey to catch up with him at Quba’.

On Friday morning, the Prophet (Peace be upon him), sent for Bani An-Najjar, his maternal uncles, to come and escort him and Abu Bakr to Madinah . He rode towards the new headquarters amidst the cordial greetings of his Madinese followers who had lined his path. He halted at a place in the vale of Banu Salim and there he performed his Friday prayer with a hundred others.

Meanwhile the tribes and families of Madinah , the new name for Yathrib and a short form of ‘The Messenger’s Madinah (City)’, came streaming forth, and vied with one another in inviting the noble visitor to their homes. The girls of the Madinese used to chant beautiful verses of welcome rich in all meanings of obedience and dutifulness to the new Messenger. Though not wealthy, every Ansar (Helper) was wholeheartedly eager and anxious to receive the Messenger in his house. It was indeed a triumphal procession.

(Sejarah nasyid “Thola’al Badru ‘Alaina”)

Around the camel of Muhammad (Peace be upon him) and his immediate followers, rode the chiefs of the city in their best raiment and in glittering armour, everyone saying: “Alight here O Messenger of Allâh, abide by us.” Muhammad (Peace be upon him) used to answer everyone courteously and kindly: “This camel is commanded by Allâh, wherever it stops, that will be my abode.”

The camel moved onward with slackened rein, reached the site of the Prophetic Mosque and knelt down. He did not dismount until it rose up again, went on forward, turned back and then returned to kneel down in the very former spot. Here, he alighted in a quarter inhabited by Banu Najjar, a tribe related to the Prophet (Peace be upon him) from the maternal side. In fact, it was his wish to honour his maternal uncles and live among them. The fortunate host, Abu Ayyub Al-Ansari, stepped forward with unbounded joy for the Divine blessing appropriated to him, welcomed the Noble Guest and solicited him to enter his house.

(Sejarah lokasi Masjid Nabawi)

A few days later, there arrived the Prophet’s spouse Sawdah, his two daughters Fatimah and Umm Kulthum, Usama bin Zaid, Umm Aiman, ‘Abdullah — son of Abu Bakr with Abu Bakr’s house-hold including‘Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her). Zainab was not able to emigrate and stayed with her husband Abi Al-‘As till Badr Battle.

‘Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) said: “When the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) arrived in Madinah , both Abu Bakr and Bilal fell ill. I used to attend to their needs. When the fever took firm grip of Abu Bakr he used to recite verses of poetry that smacked of near death; Bilal, when the fit of fever alleviated, would also recite verses of poetry that pointed to clear homesickness.”

(Kerinduan Abu Bakar dan Bilal terhadap kampung halaman, Makkah)

‘Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) added: “I briefed the Prophet (Peace be upon him) on their grave situation, and he replied: O Allâh, we entreat You to establish in our hearts a strong love for Madinah equal to that we used to have for Makkah, or even more. O Allâh, bless and increase the wealth of Madinah and we beseech You to transmute its rotten mud into wholesome edible fat.”

LIFE IN MADINAH:

The Madinese era could be divided into three phases:

1.    The first phase was characterized by too much trouble and discord, and too many obstacles from within coupled by a hostile wave from without aiming at total extermination of the rising faith. It ended with Al-Hudaibiyah Peace Treaty in Dhul Qa‘da 6 A.H.

2.    The second phase featured a truce with the pagan leadership and ended in the conquest of Makkah in Ramadan 8 A.H. It also witnessed the Prophet (Peace be upon him) inviting kings beyond Arabia to enter the fold of Islam.

3.    In the third phase, people came to embrace Islam in hosts. Tribes and other folks arrived in Madinah to pay homage to the Prophet (Peace be upon him). It ended at the death of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) in Rabi‘ Al-Awwal 11 A.H.

Muharram Bukan Bulan Nabi Berhijrah

Jika dilihat dari petikan Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtoum yang saya bawakan tersebut, telah jelas disebutkan bahawa:

The Prophet (Peace be upon him) had thus left his house on Safar 27th, the fourteenth year of Prophethood, i.e. 12/13 September 622 A.D.

Kebanyakan kita sering tersalah anggap, mengatakan bahawa Muharram adalah bulan hijrah Muhammad. Sebenarnya bukan, Rasulullah meninggalkan kota Makkah pada 27 Safar dan tiba di kota Madinah pada 12 RabiulAwwal.

Yang dikatakan Muharram itu adalah permulaan tahun Hijrah, dan tahun pertama Hijrah itu adalah bersempena tahun baginda s.a.w berhijrah. Konsensus ini ditetapkan oleh Saidina Umar Al-Khattab ketika beliau menjadi khalifah.

Berikut petikan daripada artikel Dr. MAZA berkenaan hal ini:

4. Menurut para pengkaji Sirah Nabi s.a.w, hijrah berlaku dalam Bulan Rabi’ul Awwal, bukan Bulan Muharram. Ini disebut dalam pelbagai riwayat. Sebuah karya kajian sirah Nabi s.a.w yang mendapat anugerah dan pengiktirafan besar dalam dunia Islam iaitu al-Rahiq al-Makhtum karangan al-Syeikh al-Mubarakfuri telah menyimpulkan bahawa Nabi s.a.w keluar dari rumah baginda ke rumah Abu Bakar al-Siddiq pada malam 28 haribulan Safar, tahun ke empat belas selepas menjadi rasul. Dari situ, baginda bersama Abu Bakar ke Gua Thur. Mereka berdua berada dalam gua tersebut selama tiga malam. Pada hari pertama bulan Rabiul Awwal baginda dan Abu Bakar keluar dari Gua Thur lalu memulakan hijrah ke Yathrib (Madinah). Mereka dipandu oleh Abdullah bin ‘Uraiqit. Pada hari Isnin, 8 Rabiul Awwal, Nabi s.a.w sampai ke Quba. Baginda berada di Quba selama empat hari dan mengasaskan Masjid Quba. Pada 12 Rabiul Awwal, selepas solat Jumaat, barulah baginda memasuki Yathrib yang kemudian dinamakan Madinah. Inilah kesimpulan yang diambil dari pelbagai riwayat serta catatan ahli sejarah dan hadis. (lihat perincian: al-Mubarakfuri, al-Rahiq al-Makhtum, 163-172. Beirut: Muassasah Fuad).

5. Dengan ini, berdasarkan maklumat yang dinyatakan tadi, jelas bulan muharram bukanlah bulan baginda Nabi s.a.w berhijrah, ataupun memulakan hijrah. Kesimpulannya; baginda keluar dari rumah pada akhir bulan Safar. Memulakan hijrah pada hari pertama Rabiul Awwal dan sampai ke Madinah pada 12 Rabiul Awwal. Jika ada perbezaan pendapat dalam kalangan sejarahwan, ia berkisar pada hari-hari yang disebutkan itu sahaja. Adapun bulan, mereka bersetuju hijrah Nabi s.a.w pada Rabiul Awwal. Dengan itu, kita sepatutnya tahu bahawa bulan Muharram adalah bulan pertama dalam kiraan kalendar hijrah, bukan bulan hijrah Nabi s.a.w.

Para pembaca digalakkan membaca artikel tersebut, Muharram Bukan Bulan Nabi Berhijrah untuk maklumat mengenai asal-usul penggunaan tahun hijrah.

Penutup

Demikianlah kisah mengenai hijrahnya Nabi Muhammad s.a.w ke Madinah. Semoga dengan menjelmanya Muharram kali ini, kita dapat sekali lagi menghayati kisah hijrahnya Rasulullah dan sekaligus menerapkan pengajaran dan semangat yang ada didalamnya dalam kehidupan sehari-hari kita.

Jika kita menyoroti kisah ini dengan teliti, kita akan mendapati bahawa bukan mudah untuk Rasulullah dan para sahabat berhijrah. Dugaan dan rintangan yang cukup memeritkan dan menyayat hati terpaksa dilalui demi sampai ke Madinah. Namun dari titik tolaknya hijrah inilah, berkembangnya Islam ke seluruh pelusuk dunia sekarang. Sungguh, Allah Maha Perancang!

Wallahua’lam. Wassalam.



© Leokid.My (2012) (Mohd Syamirulah Rahim)

Setiap artikel yang tersiar di Leokid.My dihasilkan untuk tujuan pendidikan dan bersifat non-komersil. Pembaca digalakkan menyalin, menyimpan, mencetak, dan menyebarkan artikel yang terdapat di sini, namun alamat Leokid.My hendaklah disertakan bersama untuk memudahkan proses rujukan.